Russia has been the major exporter of natural gas to Bulgaria since 1974. The cooperation between the two countries is based on several documents, the most important of which are the OrenburgThe Orenburg General Agreement was signed on June 21, 1974 between the USSR and the member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), including Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia. It provided for the joint development of the Orenburg gas field and construction of the main Orenburg – the Western Soviet Border Gas Pipeline ("Soyuz"). and the YamburgThe Yamburg Agreements are a series of agreements on the joint development of the Yamburg gas condensate field and the construction of the Yamburg – Western Border of the USSR Gas Pipeline ("Progress"), signed in 1985–1987 between the USSR and the CMEA member countries, including Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland and Czechoslovakia. Agreements.

Gazprom Export’s key partner in the Bulgarian market is Bulgargaz EAD. Bulgargaz is a 100% subsidiary of Bulgarian Energy Holding EAD. The enterprise was established in 1974.

In December 2006, Gazprom Export and Bulgargaz signed a Memorandum on further development of Russian-Bulgarian relations in gas sector. The Memorandum extended the contract for Russian natural gas transmission via Bulgaria to other countries until 2030, keeping booked transit capacity at the level of 17.8 bcma.

From 2020 Bulgaria receives Russian gas through Turkey via the new TurkStream pipeline.

On 15 November 2012, Gazprom Export and Bulgargaz EAD signed a new long-term gas supply contract for up to 2.9 bcma for the period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2022.

In 2019, imported volume of Russian natural gas to Bulgaria amounted to 2.29 bcm. In total, during the entire period of cooperation, about 180 bcm of gas were delivered to Bulgaria as of 31 December 2020.