The first deliveries of natural gas to Turkey from the Soviet Union began in June 1987, by transit via Romania and Bulgaria through the dedicated Trans-Balkan pipeline.

In February 1986, based on an Intergovernmental Agreement dated  September 18, 1984, a contract was signed with Turkey’s BOTAŞThe state pipeline company BOTAŞ was established by the state oil company TPAO in 1974, in accordance with a resolution of the Turkish government. Following the need to diversify energy supplies to the country, BOTAŞ has been engaged in gas trading and transportation since 1986. Until 2001, BOTAŞ had exclusive rights to control and to shape the gas market in Turkey. The market liberalization performed by the government entailed the gradual elimination of the gas import monopoly, by the transfer of precontracted gas volumes from BOTAŞ to private sector importers, on a tender basis, and subject to the gas seller’s consent. Today BOTAŞ remains one of Turkey’s biggest players in the natural gas market. for increasing gas supplies over 25 years (1987–2011), up to 6 bcma. In 1998, a long-term contract was signed with BOTAŞ for the supply of additional 8 bcma via the same route through 2022.

Against the backdrop of Turkish gas market liberalization and the admission of new private players, Gazprom Export signed in 2007 and 2012 long-term contracts with private Turkish companies for supplying up to 10 bcma of Russian gas to Turkey. A number of these contracts are valid through 2042.

As of 31 December 2019, over the entire cooperation Turkey had been supplied with over 470 bcm of the Russian natural gas. In 2019, supply volumes amounted to 15.51 bcm.

Until 2003, natural gas was arriving to Turkey only by transit through Ukraine, Moldova, Romania and Bulgaria. In 2003, following the contract of December 15, 1997 between Gazexport and BOTAŞ, and based on the Intergovernmental Agreement, the gas exports through the Blue Stream pipeline started.