Transportation of Russian natural gas to its overseas customers proceeds through several trunklines, connecting gas fields in the North of Russia through the United Gas transportation system to the foreign countries.

The Urengoy — Pomary — Uzhgorod and "Brotherhood" pipelines is the largest gas transportation route. It can carry over 100 bcm gas per year, transiting Ukraine and running to Slovakia. In Slovakia, the pipeline is split and one branch goes to the Czech Republic. Russian gas transported through the Czech Republic flows in the direction of Waidhaus and Hora Svaté Kateřiny via Uzhgorod, as well as from the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline, with Olbernhau and Brandov as entry points. Its second branch goes to Austria. This country plays an important role in the delivery of Russian natural gas to Italy, Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia. Gas deliveries through this pipeline started in 1967.

The Nord Stream pipeline laid on the bottom of the Baltic sea with capacity of 55 bcm per year allows direct gas transportation for clients in Western Europe, bypassing transit states. The pipeline consists of two lines with a throughput capacity of 27.5 billion cubic meters/year each. Its route lies under the Baltic Sea from Portovaya Bay near the city of Vyborg to the German coast near Greifswald, stretching 1224 km. Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, France, Denmark and other European states are the target markets for this pipeline.

The Yamal — Europe pipeline runs across Russia, Belarus and Poland reaching Germany. The pipeline construction began in 1994 close to the German and Polish borders, and first sections of the pipeline were brought online as early as in 1996. The Belarusian part where Gazprom has become the sole investor was commenced in 1997. Upon commissioning of the last compressor station in 2006, Yamal — Europe reached full capacity — 33 billion mcm per annum.

The Blue Stream is intended for direct gas deliveries to Turkey, bypassing transit countries. The 1,213-km-long gas pipeline consists of an overland and offshore sections, starting close to Izobilnoye in Stavropol Region, and ending in Ankara, Turkey. The offshore section of Blue Stream is unique in its design and construction, the subsea pipe being 396 km long. The construction was completed in December 2002, and February 2003 marked the start of first commercial gas flow. 

The gas transportation route through Romania carries Russian gas to this country, transiting Ukraine and Moldova. The pipeline construction began in 1986, and the second line was added in 2002.

The consumers in Finland receive Russian gas through the gas transportation system in the Leningrad Region.